# how to make series circuit working model with LED lights with explanation

This series circuit model provides a hands-on and visual representation of how series circuits work, making it an informative and engaging exhibit for a science project exhibition.

Creating a series circuit working model with LED lights, a 9V battery, a switch, cardboard, and color paper is a great way to demonstrate the basics of electrical circuits.

## Materials needed:

1. Cardboard
2. LED lights (2 or more)
3. 9V battery
4. Wires
5. Switch
6. Resistor (optional, depending on LED specifications)
7. Color paper
8. Glue
9. Scissors
10. Marker or pen

## Working Model Making Steps:

1. Prepare the Base:
• Cut a piece of cardboard to serve as the base for your model. This will be the foundation on which you’ll build your series circuit.
2. Attach LED Lights:
• Place the LED lights on the cardboard base in a line. Make sure to arrange them in a series by connecting the cathode (shorter leg) of one LED to the anode (longer leg) of the next LED.
3. Connect LEDs in Series:
• Use wires to connect the cathode of one LED to the anode of the next LED. Continue this process until all LEDs are connected in series. You can use small strips of aluminum foil to help secure the connections.
• If the LEDs require a resistor, connect it in series with the positive side (anode) of the first LED. Check the specifications of your LEDs to determine if a resistor is necessary.
5. Connect Wires to Battery:
• Connect a wire from the cathode of the last LED to the negative terminal of the 9V battery. Connect another wire from the anode of the first LED to the positive terminal of the battery.
6. Attach Switch:
• Connect a wire from one side of the switch to the junction between the anode of the first LED and the resistor (if used). Connect another wire from the other side of the switch to the positive terminal of the battery.
7. Secure Components:
• Use glue to secure the LEDs, wires, battery, and switch in place on the cardboard base.
8. Cut and Attach Color Paper:
• Cut small pieces of color paper and attach them around the LEDs to represent bulbs. This step is optional but can enhance the visual appeal of your model.
9. Test the Circuit:
• Turn on the switch, and your LEDs should light up in sequence, demonstrating the series circuit. If one LED fails, the entire circuit will be interrupted.
10. Create Labels:
• Label the components on the cardboard to explain the different parts of the series circuit and how it works.
11. Present and Explain:
• During the exhibition, demonstrate how the series circuit functions. Explain the concept of series circuits and how the current flows through each component in a single path.