waste water purification working model for school science project exhibition


In this project, we will create a simple working model to demonstrate a four-step wastewater purification process using basic materials such as cardboard, paper cups, pipes, gravels, sand, and cotton. The model will showcase the steps of physical filtration and basic water treatment.

Materials Needed:

  1. Cardboard or foam board (for the base)
  2. Paper cups
  3. Plastic pipes or straws
  4. Gravel
  5. Sand
  6. Cotton or filter paper
  7. Water (to simulate wastewater)
  8. Food coloring (optional, for visibility)

Step-by-Step Explanation:

  1. Preparing the Base:
    • Cut a piece of cardboard or foam board to create the base of the model.
  2. Creating Filtration Steps:Step 1: Coarse Filtration (Gravel)
    • Place a paper cup with the bottom cut off onto the base. This will serve as the container for the gravel.
    • Fill the cup with a layer of gravel. This step simulates the removal of large debris and particles.
    Step 2: Medium Filtration (Sand)
    • Place another paper cup on the base, adjacent to the first one.
    • Fill this cup with a layer of sand. The sand will filter out smaller particles and impurities.
    Step 3: Fine Filtration (Cotton or Filter Paper)
    • Position a paper cup next to the sand-filled cup.
    • Place a piece of cotton or filter paper at the bottom of this cup. This step further refines the filtration process.
    Step 4: Collecting Purified Water
    • Place another paper cup beside the fine filtration cup to collect the purified water.
  3. Simulating Water Flow:
    • Create a flow of water by pouring water (simulating wastewater) into the gravel-filled cup. Allow the water to pass through each filtration stage.
    • As the water flows through the gravel, sand, and cotton, it will become progressively cleaner.
  4. Demonstrating Purified Water:
    • Observe the water collected in the last cup. It should appear clearer and cleaner, demonstrating the effectiveness of the filtration process.

Understanding the Process:

This model demonstrates a simplified version of water purification commonly found in basic water treatment systems. The filtration stages remove larger and smaller particles, as well as some impurities, resulting in cleaner water.


By creating the waste water purification working model, you’ve illustrated a basic process of physical filtration used in water treatment. This project showcases the importance of treating wastewater before it is released into the environment.

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