# Electromagnet project working model for school science exhibition – DIY

## INTRODUCTION

In this topic, we are going to show you how to make an electromagnet working model for your science project or exhibitions.

This homemade science experiment is done using materials like screw, thick and thin copper wires and thin nails which is easily available at home at low cost.

## What is Magnetic field and How it can be formed?

When the magnetic field is produced by electric current in a magnet it is termed as an electromagnet.

It consists of a wire wound into a coil.

When an electric current is passed through the wire it creates a magnetic field which is concentrated in the hole which basically denotes the center of the coil.

The magnetic field generated will disappear when the current is turned off.

Wires will be wound around magnetic cores which are made up of ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic materials such as iron.

Here the magnetic core helps to concentrate magnetic flux and make a more powerful magnet.

## Advantage of the electromagnet in comparison to the permanent magnet

Advantage of the electromagnet in comparison to the permanent magnet is that the magnetic field can be controlled by changing the amount of electric current flow in the winding.

However, to maintain the magnetic field there should be a continuous supply of electric current.

## Usages of Electromagnet?

They are mainly used in electrical devices such as generators, motors, relays, hard disks, MRI machines, loudspeakers, and electromechanical solenoids.

They are also called as brake magnet as they are used to control brakes on a pull behind camper, utility trailer, travel trailer or RV. They are used in industry for picking up and moving of heavy objects such as steel and iron scrap.

## Who discovered Electromagnet?

In 1820, Hans Christian discovered that electric current creates magnetic fields and in 1824, William Sturgeon invented electromagnet.
Electromechanical and electric devices widely use electromagnets.

## Step by Step Video to make the Electromagnet

In this video, we will show you the following steps and items that can be used to build electromagnet at home by taking help freely from your parents.

Take a thick copper wire and carefully wrap it around a screw in a spiral pattern. It should end up looking like a screw.

Make sure it is tightly wounded around the screw as it is a very important part of the process and make sure that you leave two lengths of wire on either end.

Then curl it around to make sure you get better contact with the battery.

Then very carefully line up the two ends of the copper wire with the battery one on the positive end and one on the negative end.

The battery will get very warm during this experiment.

Turn the battery on its side to hold the wire in place then hold the iron against your metal objects.

You will observe that the iron screw has become a magnet. This is because the electricity flowing through the copper wire has passed into the iron screw making it magnetic.

When you remove the screw from the battery you will still observe that the screw will still be slightly magnetic however not as powerful as before since no electricity is flowing through the screw.

This is how you make your own electromagnet at home.

• Nail
• Battery
• Copper Wires
• Safety pin
• Stapler pins

## Science Exhibition Questions & Answers on electromagnet

1. What is an electromagnet used for?
They are mainly used in all kinds of electric devices like speakers, hard drives, generators, and motors. It is also used in picking up heavy scrap metal and MRI devices.
2. Are electromagnets dangerous?
They are safe however strongest ones can create hazards due to high forces, electric current and stored energy.
3. What is the difference between a magnet and an electromagnet?
Persistence magnetic field exists in permanent magnet whereas the electromagnet is made from a coil of wire which acts as a magnet when an electric current passes through it.
4. How can u make an electromagnet stronger?
We can make an electromagnet stronger by adding more turns to the coil, wrapping the coil around the iron piece and increasing current flow through the coil.
5. What metal makes the best electromagnet?
Iron and nickel are best electromagnets.
6. How magnets can be used to generate electricity?
• Either moving a magnet around a coil of wire or moving a coil wire around magnet results in pushing of electrons in the wire which creates an electric current.
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## Conclusions

With this Electromagnets experiments, the conclusion is very useful in our day to day life as they are widely used in electric and electromechanical devices.

Magnetic copper and battery working model help students to learn about how to make an electromagnet

Understand the electromagnetic field and as well as how to make it with easily available materials at home.