how to make maths TLM working model (parts of circles) – diy

In this post we have given the instruction on how to make the maths TLM working model (parts of circles) – diy using cardboard at home

Creating a working model to demonstrate the parts of a circle using a 9V battery and LED lights can be both educational and visually appealing.

This model will help illustrate different parts of a circle such as the radius, diameter, chord, arc, sector, and tangent.

Here’s how to create a “match the following” activity using LED lights to highlight each part of the circle:

Materials Needed:

  1. Cardboard: For the base and the circle.
  2. Color Paper: For decorating and labeling.
  3. LED Lights: At least six LEDs of different colors to highlight different parts of the circle.
  4. 9V Battery: Power source for the LED lights.
  5. Resistors: To prevent the LEDs from burning out (usually 220Ω for each LED).
  6. Switch: To control the LED lights.
  7. Wires: For connecting the LEDs to the battery and switch.
  8. Glue or Tape: For assembly.
  9. Scissors and Craft Knife: For cutting the cardboard and paper.
  10. Markers, Paint, or Colored Pencils: For decorating and labeling.
  11. Ruler and Compass: For drawing the circle and measuring.

how to make math’s TLM working model on circles match the following

1. Prepare the Base:

  • Cut a large rectangular piece from the cardboard. This will serve as the base of your model.
  • Optionally, cover the base with color paper or paint it for a more polished look.

2. Create the Circle:

  • Using a compass, draw a large circle on another piece of cardboard.
  • Cut out the circle and draw its parts (radius, diameter, chord, arc, sector, tangent) on the circle.

3. Define the Parts:

  • Radius: A line from the center to any point on the circle.
  • Diameter: A line passing through the center, touching two points on the circle.
  • Chord: A line segment within the circle that does not pass through the center.
  • Arc: A curved line that is part of the circle’s circumference.
  • Sector: A region bounded by two radii and the arc between them.
  • Tangent: A line that touches the circle at exactly one point.

4. Attach the Circle to the Base:

  • Glue or tape the circle onto the center of the rectangular cardboard base.

5. Attach the LEDs:

  • Place LEDs at strategic points on the circle to highlight each part:
    • Center: To mark the center of the circle.
    • Radius: Along the line from the center to the edge.
    • Diameter: Across the circle.
    • Chord: A line segment within the circle.
    • Arc: Along the curved edge of the circle.
    • Sector: Within the region formed by two radii.
    • Tangent: At a point where a line touches the circle externally.

6. Wire the LEDs:

  • Connect each LED to a resistor to prevent it from burning out.
  • Use wires to connect each LED to the 9V battery through the switch. This can be done in parallel to ensure each LED gets the same voltage.
  • Secure the wires neatly on the back of the base using tape or glue.

7. Install the Switch:

  • Attach the switch to the base in an accessible location.
  • Connect the switch to the battery and complete the circuit with the LEDs.

8. Label the Parts:

  • Create labels for each part of the circle on color paper.
  • Attach these labels to the corresponding LEDs or near them on the circle.
  • Create matching labels and place them on the other side of the base to create a “match the following” activity.

9. Test the Model:

  • Turn on the switch to light up the LEDs.
  • Ensure each LED lights up correctly and corresponds to the correct part of the circle.


  • Double-check all wiring connections to ensure there are no short circuits.
  • Use different colored LEDs for each part to make it visually distinct.
  • Ensure all labels are clear and correctly placed to facilitate easy matching.


This working model is an excellent tool to help students visualize and understand the different parts of a circle. It combines hands-on activity with visual learning, making it a fun and educational project. Enjoy building and learning from your model!

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