how to make Soil layers school model for science exhibition


In this topic, we are going to show you how to build a soil layers model for your science project or exhibitions using complete waste boxes

soil layers school model for science exhibition

A soil horizon is parallel to the soil surface and its physical, chemical and biological characteristics differ from the layers above and beneath.

Horizons have different color and texture. Master horizons are indicated by capital letters and lower case letters and figures are further used to differentiate the master horizons.

Soil classification systems

Some systems may use the entire horizon sequence while other systems may use certain horizons such as “diagnostic horizons” for definition.

Soil horizon is due to the soil-forming process. Layers which has not undergone through a process are called layers.

Organic surface layer:

It is a layer of plant residues with upper part undecomposed while and lower part may be humified.

Surface soil:

Mineral soil layer consisting of organic matter accumulation and soil life. It also contains oxides and clay minerals.

Soil structure is pronounced. Combination of soil bioturbation and surface processes may also result in the formation of horizons hence it is called as biomantle.


It has less organic matter in comparison to surface soil hence its color is derived from iron oxides.

When substances move down from topsoil this is the layer where they get accumulated.

Illuviation is a process in which clay minerals, iron, aluminum, and organic compounds are accumulated.


It consists of non-indurated poorly weathered or unweathered rocks. It consists of a compound like CaCo3.


It consists of a layer of partially weathered or unweathered bedrock at the base.

It comprises continuous masses (as opposed to boulders) of hard rock that cannot be excavated by hand.

Building soil layer model for School Science Project – Step by Step Video

In this video, we will show you the following steps and items that can be used to build soil layer model for science project ideas at home by taking help freely from your parents. This would be part of geology project ideas.

Materials Used to Make soil layer model

  • White Chart Paper
  • Sketch Pen
  • Color Paints
  • Pencil
  • Paintbrush
  • Hot Glue Gun
  • Fevicol
  • Waste Box
  • Scissor to Cut

Prepare for Science Fair Questions & Answers – soil layer model

  1. What are the layers of soil?
    Horizons are rich, organic upper layers (humus and topsoil) to underlying rocky layers ( subsoil, regolith, and bedrock).
  2. How many layers are there in soil?
    Soil is made up of four layers which are distinct in nature. Each layer characteristics is different from other layers which make them unique.
  3. What are the soil horizons?
    Three major soil horizons are Surface horizon, subsoil, and substratum. Some soils contain organic horizon while the master horizon is used for subsurface horizons which have a loss of minerals.
  4. What are the 3 types of soil?
    Sand, silt, and clay are three types of soil.
  5. Which layer of soil is rich in hummus?
    The top organic layer of soil is made up of leaf litter and humus. (Decomposed organic matter).


Soil layers model topic helps the students to understand different types of soil that are present in the ecosystem. As well as how to demonstrate by modeling he soils layer concepts by using the waste boxes available at home

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