# How to make electroscope working model

### Introduction to the Electroscope:

What is an Electroscope?

An electroscope is a scientific instrument used to detect the presence of electric charges on a body. It is one of the oldest and simplest devices for studying electricity and is based on the principles of electrostatics.

How Does an Electroscope Work?

The basic design of an electroscope consists of a conducting rod with two thin metal leaves (usually gold or aluminum foil) attached at the bottom end.

When a charged object is brought near the top of the rod, the electric charge is transferred to the leaves through the rod. Because like charges repel each other, the leaves move apart when charged, indicating the presence and magnitude of the charge.

Working Principle of the Model:

In this working model, the copper wire acts as the conducting rod, and the aluminum foil pieces serve as the leaves. When a charged plastic pipe or comb is brought near the copper wire, the electrons in the wire are either attracted or repelled, depending on the charge on the pipe.

This causes the aluminum foil leaves to acquire like charges, making them repel each other and spread apart. The degree of separation of the leaves is a measure of the charge’s strength.

Applications:

Electroscopes are fundamental tools in physics for detecting electric charges, demonstrating electrostatic principles, and understanding the behavior of charges. They are used in various scientific experiments to study electricity and are an essential educational tool for teaching basic concepts of electrostatics.

### Making of working model of an electroscope

Creating a working model of an electroscope using simple materials like a paper cup, aluminum foil, copper wire, and a plastic pipe for generating static electricity is a great way to demonstrate how this device detects electric charges. Here’s a guide on how to make the model and an introduction to explain its working.

### Materials Needed:

• Paper cup: This will be the base of the electroscope.
• Aluminum foil: To create the leaves of the electroscope.
• Copper wire: To serve as the conducting rod.
• Plastic pipe or comb: To create static electricity.
• Balloon or wool cloth: To generate static electricity by rubbing against the plastic pipe.
• Scissors: To cut the aluminum foil.
• Glue or tape: To secure parts together.
• Pencil or similar object: To make a small hole in the paper cup.

### Step-by-Step Video Instructions:

1. Prepare the Paper Cup Base:
• Take the paper cup and turn it upside down so that the open end is facing down. This will be the base of your electroscope.
• Use a pencil or another pointed object to poke a small hole in the bottom of the paper cup (now the top) for inserting the copper wire.
2. Create the Conducting Rod:
• Take a piece of copper wire and straighten it out. It should be long enough to go through the hole in the paper cup and extend about 2 inches above the cup.
• Insert the copper wire through the hole in the paper cup, leaving the bottom part inside the cup and the top part sticking out above the cup.
3. Make the Aluminum Foil Leaves:
• Cut two small rectangles (about 1 inch by 2 inches) from the aluminum foil. These will act as the leaves of the electroscope.
• Fold the foil rectangles in half and then unfold them so they can move freely.
• Attach the two pieces of aluminum foil to the bottom end of the copper wire inside the cup. The foil leaves should hang down freely and be close to each other but not touching.
4. Secure the Copper Wire:
• Once the aluminum leaves are attached, secure the copper wire in place with glue or tape at the top of the cup where it passes through the hole.
5. Add the Static Electricity Generator:
• Use a plastic pipe or a comb to generate static electricity. To do this, rub the plastic pipe or comb with a balloon or wool cloth to charge it with static electricity.
6. Test the Electroscope:
• Bring the charged plastic pipe or comb near the top of the copper wire without touching it. The static charge from the pipe will induce a charge in the copper wire, causing the aluminum foil leaves to repel each other and spread apart.
• The more charge is present, the more the leaves will spread apart, indicating the presence of static electricity.
7. Final Assembly:
• Make sure the paper cup is stable, and the aluminum leaves can move freely without any obstructions.