Pencil electricity experiment (working model) for school science exhibition | DIY


In this topic, we are going to show you how to build a pencil lead electricity experiments for your science project or exhibitions.

Pencil Electricity Experiment for School Science Fair for Kids

Thermal Electricity Background

Thermal differences help to generate electricity using thermoelectric material.

Now we and do the same using the simplest tools like pencil, wires, and battery.

These help to convert a temperature difference into electricity through a thermoelectric effect.

Thomas J Seeback discovered thermoelectric effect which was almost 200 years.

Electric voltage is developed using two metals of different temperatures.

This effect allows heat to be converted partially into electrical energy.

All technological and natural processes produce heat which is used in power plants and other household appliances.

It is an underutilized source energy source in the world. This effect is small in ordinary metals.

Metals have both high electrical conductivity as well as high thermal conductivity hence difference in temperature disappears immediately.

Inorganic semiconductor materials like bismuth telluride are used in the technological application and are quite expensive.

Norbert Nickel professor has shown that this effect is obtained using HB grade pencil.

What the Ingredients of Pencil Lead?

The pencil is made up of graphite and it is a crystalline form of carbon element.

Nonmetal carbon in the form of graphite is a good conductor of electricity which can be used to light the bulb.

Step by Step Video Experiments on Pencil Lead Conduct Electricity

In this video, we will show you the following steps and items that can be used to build a simple circuit for pencil electricity experiments at home by taking help freely from your parents.

This can be used emergency light using led

Materials Used for Pencil Electricity Experiments

  • Pencils
  • Wires
  • Led
  • Battery

Science Fair Questions & Answers on Pencil Electricity Experiments

  1. Is the pencil a good conductor of electricity?
    Pencil lead is made up of graphite. Graphite molecular bonding gives it metal like properties and helps to conduct electricity.
  2. Can electricity pass through lead?
    Electricity is generally conducted through metals however pencil lead also conducts electricity as it is made up of carbon.
  3. Why does the pencil graphite light up?
    Pencil graphite conducts electricity however larger resistance causes electrical energy to be converted into heat and light. This power helps to increase in light.
  4. Can a pencil sharpened at both ends be used as a conductor?
    Yes, pencil sharpened at both ends can be used as a conductor.
  5. Which parts of the pencil are conductors?
    Conductors have low resistance while insulators have high resistance however lead of pencil is made up of graphite. It exists in crystalline form carbon element.


Pencil electricity experiments help to understand the flow of electricity in a non-metallic element like graphite which is made up of graphite that exists in crystalline form. This experiment helps the students to learn the concepts of conductor, insulator.

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