how to make 3D working model of the human kidney

Creating a 3D working model of the human kidney using cardboard can be a fascinating and educational science project for an exhibition.

Below are the steps to create such a model:

Materials Needed:

3D working model of the human kidney
  1. Cardboard sheets (various colors)
  2. Scissors
  3. Glue or tape
  4. Markers or paint
  5. Craft knife (optional)
  6. Ruler
  7. Reference images of the human kidney


  1. Research and Planning:
    • Begin by researching the structure and function of the human kidney. Gather information about its various parts, including the renal cortex, renal medulla, renal pelvis, renal arteries, renal veins, and nephrons.
    • Sketch out a rough plan for your model, including the main components and their relative sizes.
  2. Create the Main Structure:
    • Use cardboard sheets to cut out two kidney-shaped outlines. These will serve as the main structure of the model.
    • Cut out additional kidney-shaped pieces to represent the renal cortex and medulla layers. These pieces should be slightly smaller than the main outlines to create a layered effect.
    • Attach the layers together using glue or tape, stacking them to create the three-dimensional structure of the kidney.
  3. Add Internal Structures:
    • Cut out small cardboard shapes to represent the various internal structures of the kidney, such as the renal pelvis, renal arteries, renal veins, and nephrons.
    • Use reference images to ensure accuracy in size and placement.
    • Attach these internal structures to the appropriate locations within the main structure of the kidney using glue or tape.
  4. Detailing and Labeling:
    • Use markers or paint to add details and color to your model. Add shading and highlights to create depth and realism.
    • Label each part of the kidney using small pieces of cardboard or paper attached with glue or tape. Include both the common name and scientific name of each structure.

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